02 Alexander
07 James
15 Thomas

Genealogy of George Hutchison and Christian Keith.
Hutchison family tree.

Keith family tree.

  George Hutchison.


Christian Keith.
Born 17 July 1765   2 March 1773
Place Peterhead: Densmill.   Cruden: Sandend.
Died 11 October 1844.   5 September 1828.
Place Cruden: Gask.   Cruden: Gask.
Married 30 December 1797.   30 December 1797.
Place Cruden.   Cruden.
Ancestors John Hutchison and Margaret Thomson.   Alexander Keith and Mary Simpson.
Siblings 3 brothers, 4 sisters.   1 brother, 6 sisters.


ref Name Born Died Biography.(Baptismal witness names in brackets).
  Alexander 22 Nov1798 16 Mar 1800  
  John 1799 1817 (Rev Mr Torry & James Hutchison)
151 George 21 Aug 1801 17 June 1861 1828. Jessie McDonald.
02 Alexander 10 May 1803 8 May 1890 1850. 1840 E.L?. Agnes Daniel.
07 James 14 Feb 1805 5 Jan 1892 1832. Mary Castel. (James Johnston & James Hutchison)
  William 6 Oct 1806 20 Jan 07 UM.
  Robert 19 Sept 1807 ? West Indies. Not known if married. (James Johnston & George Morison)
  Mary 3 Dec 1809 1893 1838. James Reid.
   Peter 23 Aug 1811 28 Feb 1882 Susannah Stevens.
  Barbara 25 May 1813 11 Nov 1897 19 Nov 1835. Alexander Annand.
  Thomas 25 May 1815 13 Sep 1887 UM.
  William 16 Oct 1817 18 Sep 1871 UM. 1871 Census shows - 24 Marischal Street, Peterhead: William Hutchison: um: aged 51: lodger: draper employing 2 assistants: b. Cruden.

Baptismal witnesses.
James Hutchison is presumably George's brother, and perhaps George Morison is the son of James Morison and Mary Keith. I've failed to find any further information about George Morison. The Johnstons were friends or perhaps some sort of family connection from way back. They appear as baptismal witnesses as far back as the children of Thomas Forbes in Ardiffery, brother or cousin of George Forbes who married Elizabeth Ross. They also appear as witnesses to the children of Thomas Simpson and Barbara Forbes.
OPR. EL to TMH 15 June 1996.

Dear Garth,

You've no idea of what a large can of worms you've stumbled into in asking about George H and Christian, and their locations, but here goes:-

We have as yet very little knowledge about goings on in Cruden around 1800.
Possibly the papers of the Earl of Errol's Estate may exist and may have a lot of information, but I doubt it. (Lady Errol has a house near Colliestone, but it's not her main residence)  The Elphinstone Institute at Kings College may have some data, but we've never found  time to explore their records with them.

Around 1800 when Geo.H and Chris. K were married the farming scene was almost unrecognisably different from the present. Each farm was virtually a self-contained hamlet with a population which might number 50 persons. One of their number would be responsible to the landowner for collecting rents, and presumably for organising the allocation of farming duties and rights.
The community would include:-
     Subtenants, whose main occupation would be farming
     Part time farm workers whose main occupation was something else -
Weaving; Tailoring, Shoemaking;Carpentry;Blacksmithing, etc., which they combined with farm work. "Grassmen" or "Grasswomen" who paid rent for the right to graze one or more cattle on the farm. Herds - usually children or geriatrics - paid to keep cattle off growing crops.(They didn't have fences nor dykes then) Pensioners -  really Paupers - who lived off the charity of the rest of the community.

George H was a Wright and Farmer, although his father was a Miller - a superior rank - George was the youngest son and had to fend for himself.
His work would entail making the ploughs which were built of wood every year for the season; putting up timber roof members to carry the thatching material; making bits of furniture, etc.; and looking after his own share of the cultivated land of the farm.

Every year, the same (roughly) one third of the farm was ploughed  by the communal plough - a wooden implement made by the wright, pulled by a team of up to twelve oxen, (no horses then, except for riding by the wealthy) and attended by a dozen men from the farm. Very slow work, spread over a very long time. The farm of Gask must have comprised about 500 Acres of which about 150 might have been ploughed each year. (The same 150, over and over again: only the best land.) This would have taken them 150 days: a big 8-furrow reversible used today would need ten days or less.  And it was necessary in those days to plough several times a year to try to control weeds. Today, one application of Glyphosate is enough!

The whole scene changed in a surprisingly short time, although in the North east the improvements lagged well behind  - say - the Lothians. By 1841, when the first formal censuses started, the land had been divided into smaller farms with single occupancy and hired hands to work them; fences or hedges or dykes had been installed, drains of clay pipes had been laid; (brickworks had been built to produce them, now mostly disused or dismantled) all of the land on each farm was now subject to cultivation and rotation of crops including the grazing land. Fodder crops like turnips had arrived, enabling cattle to survive the winters; Lime was being spread to release soil nutriments, etc.  So, although George and Christian stayed on at Gask while these changes were occurring, their family became more nearly modern farmers.

This required capital, and probably Christian was an heiress whose money helped their children into farms.

Their son James H and Mary Castell rented the farm of Berrymoss in Cruden. I'm not clear about the origin of Berrymoss: it may have been part of  a Farm Town of Aldie, which still exists as a farm with a handsome mansion house; or it may have been an area of waste which James broke in to cultivation.

James's older brother Alexander  farmed at Gask. By his time Gask would have been divided  so that Alexander farmed 50 acres of the original - say - 500 acres.  I guess that George senior lived with him until his death (George's ) in 1844. Alexander and his wife Agnes Daniel moved on to Teuchan. An informed guess suggests that the move probably occurred in 1863/4, when his brother Thomas moved from Teuchan to Cardiff. Alexander's occupancy of 50 acres of Gask along with some six other occupiers of smaller areas suggests that as late as 1861 the farm structure was in a transitional state - neither wholly "Runrig" nor single occupancy. George may have built the first modern house on the modern farm of Gask. Who knows?

All that needs summarising, so:-

George & Christian                Gask "Farmtown" then Gask farm till 1844.

Their family:-

John                                       Not known
George                                   Braemar, etc.
Alexander & Agnes Daniel     Gask farm till 1863/4, then Teuchan.
James & Mary Castell            Berrymoss till his son, Alexander, died in 1911.
Robert, Mary, Peter, Barbara - all moved away
Thomas                                  Teuchan farm till 1864, then
Cardiff. Died at Berrymoss
William                                   Draper in Peterhead

TMH. Oct 2003.

Gask. Go to www.multimap.com and enter postcode AB42 0PT in the search box.